Trefoil factor 1 gene alternations and expression in colorectal carcinomas
Aims and background. Aberrant expression of the trefoil factor family (TFF) has been recognized to be involved in the development and/or progression of various solid tumors. Increased trefoil factor 1 (TFF1) expression is found associated with tumor progression in some tumors, and TFF1 missense mutations have been detected in gastric cancer. The aim of the study was to analyze TFF1 alternations and expression in colorectal carcinoma and their correlation with cancer progression and pathological aspects. Methods.TFF1 mutations were detected in colorectal carcinomas by DNA sequencing. TFF1 mRNA and protein levels in subsets of the primary tumors were determined using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry analyses. The serum level of TFF1 was also detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for patients with colorectal carcinoma. Results. Five variants were detected in the 5’-untranslation region and intron 1 of TFF1. TFF1 expression was increased in colorectal carcinoma compared to paired distal colonic mucosa. Immunohistochemistry in primary colorectal carcinoma showed no significant differences in tumor TFF1 levels with respect to clinicopathological parameters such as the patient’s sex, cancer differentiation, stage and lymph node metastasis. However, serum TFF1 levels were significantly elevated in patients with colorectal carcinoma compared to healthy individuals. Conclusions. The results indicate that TFF1 missense mutations seem to be a rare event in colorectal carcinogenesis. Serum TFF1 may be a potential useful marker for patients with colorectal carcinoma.
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