The introduction of agents targeting vascular endothelial growth factor has radically changed the approach to metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC): sunitinib and pazopanib are now the standard first-line therapy in mRCC. At sunitinib failure, second-line axitinib or everolimus or sorafenib should be considered to improve the clinical outcome. No data are available for a third-line tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) after 2 previous lines of therapy with TKIs. At pazopanib failure, no prospective data are available.
The TOKIO study was designed to evaluate progression-free survival, safety, and efficacy of third-line therapy with TKI in 44 patients already treated with 2 previous lines of TKIs in 10 Italian centers, and relapsed from sunitinib-axitinib (group A) or pazopanib-sorafenib (group B). Standard treatment is sorafenib in group A and sunitinib in group B, administered until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Secondary endpoints include the evaluation of overall survival, safety, and quality of life.
Tumori 2015; 101(6): 701 - 703
Article Type: CLINICAL TRIAL PROTOCOL
AuthorsElena Verzoni, Paolo Grassi, Rosanna Montone, Giulia Galli, Andrea Necchi, Giuseppe Procopio
- • Accepted on 26/03/2015
- • Available online on 20/06/2015
- • Published in print on 14/11/2015
This article is available as full text PDF.
- Verzoni, Elena [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
- Grassi, Paolo [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
- Montone, Rosanna [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
- Galli, Giulia [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
- Necchi, Andrea [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
- Procopio, Giuseppe [PubMed] [Google Scholar] , * Corresponding Author (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Department of Medical Oncology, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan - Italy