Aims and background. Bladder cancer (BC) is the most expensive cancer to treat. Its incidence and mortality have not decreased in the last three decades. Numerous uncertainties are still surrounding the etiology of BC. There is a need for a low-cost screening test for BC that would be applicable for early detection in asymptomatic persons, a test that would preferably be noninvasive and have satisfactory sensitivity and specificity. Methods and study design. The first part of this paper addresses critical issues in the research into BC etiology, which we classified as entrances, toxicity and metabolism, amounts, and duration of exposure to carcinogens in the bladder. In the second part, based on the proven risk factors for BC, we present a simple scoring system as part of a new BC screening method. Results. The heterogeneous results of studies on BC etiology are largely due to a lack of research into the compounds (and their mutual interactions) present in the urinary bladder, carcinogens absorbed through the skin and/or inhaled, and the daily dynamics of exposure to exogenous risk factors. We have calculated a score for BC screening which is an integral component of a new, four-level system of BC prevention. Conclusions. Interactions of carcinogens and their daily dynamics deserve more attention in further clarifying BC etiology. New attempts in BC screening should be focused on urine content analyses (carcinogens, antioxidants, vitamins, minerals) and not only on hematuria and currently used biomarkers. We propose a score for BC preevaluation and recruitment for screening and a new model of BC prevention.
Tumori 2014; 100(1): 1 - 8
Article Type: REVIEW
Vladan Radosavljevic, Goran Belojevic
- • Accepted on 30/08/2013
- • Available online on 01/01/2014
This article is available as full text PDF.
- Radosavljevic, Vladan
Military Medical Corps Headquarters, Belgrade, Serbia and Military Academy, University of Defense, Belgrade, Serbia
- Belojevic, Goran
Institute of Hygiene and Medical Ecology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia