Pathogenesis, clinical manifestations and management of immune checkpoint inhibitors toxicity


Immune checkpoint inhibitors have emerged as an effective treatment for several tumor types and their use in clinical practice is expected to further increase in the immediate future. Although these agents are well tolerated, they are associated with a peculiar spectrum of toxicity, which is immune mediated and may potentially affect every organ. However, immune-related adverse events are mostly reversible if promptly diagnosed and adequately treated. Therefore, it is crucial that medical oncologists know how to diagnose and treat immune-related adverse events. This review focuses on the pathogenesis, clinical manifestations and management of immune-related toxicity of anti-CTLA-4 and anti-PD-1 antibodies.

Tumori 2017; 103(5): 405 - 421

Article Type: REVIEW



Alessandro Inno, Giulio Metro, Paolo Bironzo, Antonio M. Grimaldi, Elisabetta Grego, Vincenzo Di Nunno, Virginia Picasso, Francesco Massari, Stefania Gori

Article History


Financial support: None.
Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest related to this article.

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  •  Medical Oncology Unit, Cancer Care Center, Sacro Cuore Don Calabria Hospital, Negrar (Verona) - Italy
  •  Medical Oncology Unit, Santa Maria della Misericordia Hospital, Azienda Ospedaliera di Perugia, Perugia - Italy
  •  Department of Oncology, University of Turin, S. Luigi Hospital, Orbassano (Turin) - Italy
  •  Melanoma Unit, Cancer Immunotherapy and Innovative Therapy, Istituto Nazionale Tumori Fondazione G. Pascale, Naples - Italy
  •  Medical Oncology Unit, University Hospital of Verona, Verona - Italy
  •  Division of Oncology, S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Bologna - Italy
  •  Department of Medical Oncology, IRCCS San Martino, IST Istituto Nazionale per la Ricerca sul Cancro, Genoa - Italy

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